How Many Fold Lower Is Human Exposure Than the Dose That Gave Rodents Cancer:

Margin of Exposure, MOE (Rodent Cancer Dose/Human Exposure)

Lois Swirsky Gold, Bruce N. Ames, Thomas H. Slone, Carcinogenic Potency Project

Human exposures to chemicals that occur naturally in food from plants or products of cooking are in green.

MOE values are colored as they are in the graphic to indicate the type of exposure: Occupational Exposure to Workers, Drugs (Recommended Dose), Natural Chemicals in the Diet, Air Pollutants in California, Food Additives, and Pesticide Residues and Pollutants.  See graphic at MOE.html

 

Citation for this table: Lois Swirsky Gold, Bruce N. Ames, Thomas H. Slone. How Many Fold Lower Is Human Exposure Than the Dose That Gave Rodents Cancer: Margin of Exposure, MOE (Rodent Cancer Dose/Human Exposure). MOEtable.html, September 2008. 
A pdf of this web page is at pdfs/MOEtable.pdf.

 

MOE

(LTD10/Human Exposure)

 

Average Daily US Exposure

Human Intake of Rodent Carcinogen

Rodent Cancer Dose

LTD10 [mg/kg/day]

 

References for Human Exposure
(Full References Follow Table)

Amount per Day     [Amount in mg/kg/day]

Rats

Mice

 

0.01

Vinyl chloride polymerization workers, 1955-1960 *

Vinyl chloride, 3.85 g [55 mg/kg/day]

0.517

(2.34)

(Barnes 1976)

 

 

0.08

EDB: production workers (high exposure before 1977)

Ethylene dibromide, 150 mg [2.14 mg/kg/day]

0.170

(0.764)

(Ott et al. 1980; Ramsey et al. 1978)

 

 

0.5

Clofibrate

Clofibrate, 2 g [28.6 mg/kg/day]

15.7

(–)

(Havel and Kane 1982)

 

 

0.8

Vinyl chloride polymerization workers, 1975

Vinyl chloride, 48.2 mg [0.688 mg/kg/day]

0.517

(2.34)

(Barnes 1976)

 

 

0.8

Phenobarbital, 1 sleeping pill

Phenobarbital, 60 mg [0.857 mg/kg/day]

(+)

0.704

(American Medical Association Division of Drugs 1983)

 

 

1

Gemfibrozil

Gemfibrozil, 1.2 g [17.1 mg/kg/day]

19.0

(–)

(Arky 1998)

 

 

1

Butadiene-styrene rubber industry workers (1978-86) *

1,3-Butadiene, 66.0 mg [0.943 mg/kg/day]

(28.2)

1.38

(Matanoski et al. 1993)

 

 

2

Formaldehyde: production workers (1979) *

Formaldehyde, 6.1 mg [0.0871 mg/kg/day]

0.145

(2.72)

(Siegal et al. 1983)

 

 

2

Comfrey-pepsin tablets, 9 daily; FDA has issued an advisory against use

Comfrey root, 2.7 g [38.6 mg/kg/day]

72.0

.

(Culvenor et al. 1980; Hirono et al. 1978)

 

 

2

Acrylonitrile: production workers (1960-1986)

Acrylonitrile, 28.4 mg [0.406 mg/kg/day]

(1.74)

0.759

(Blair et al. 1998)

 

 

2

Diet pills containing Aristolochia fangchi, 2 years *

Aristolochic acid, 1.08 mg [0.0154 mg/kg/day]

0.000941

.

(Cosyns et al. 1998; Nortier et al. 2000)

 

 

2

Tetrachloroethylene: dry cleaners with dry-to-dry units (1980-90)

Tetrachloroethylene, 433 mg [6.19 mg/kg/day]

13.9

(17.9)

(Andrasik and Cloutet 1990)

 

 

3

Alcoholic beverages, all types

Ethyl alcohol, 22.8 ml [326 mg/kg/day]

930

(–)

(Nephew et al. 2000)

 

 

4

Vinyl fluoride polymer production workers (1980)

Vinyl fluoride, 14.2 mg [0.203 mg/kg/day]

(1.99)

0.912

(Oser 1980)

 

 

5

Trichloroethylene: vapor degreasing (before 1977)

Trichloroethylene, 1.02 g [14.6 mg/kg/day]

67.9

(171)

(Page and Arthur 1978)

 

 

6

Beer, 229 ml

Ethyl alcohol, 11.7 ml [167 mg/kg/day]

930

(–)

(Beer Institute 1999)

 

 

6

Comfrey-pepsin tablets, 9 daily; FDA has issued an advisory against use

Symphytine, 1.8 mg [0.0257 mg/kg/day]

0.146

.

(Culvenor et al. 1980; Hirono et al. 1978)

 

 

6

Ethylene oxide: sterilization workers

Ethylene oxide, 29.2 mg [0.417 mg/kg/day]

0.00242

(0.00615)

(Steenland et al. 1991)

 

 

10

Methylene chloride: workers, industry average (1940s-80s)

Methylene chloride, 471 mg [6.73 mg/kg/day]

76.7

(126)

(CONSAD Research Corporation 1990)

 

 

20

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

DHEA supplement, 25 mg [0.357 mg/kg/day]

6.27

.

 

 

 

20

Wine, 20.8 ml

Ethyl alcohol, 3.67 ml [52.4 mg/kg/day]

930

(–)

(Wine Institute 2001)

 

 

30

Formaldehyde: manufactured home air (12 hours/day)

Formaldehyde, 351 ”g [0.00501 mg/kg/day]

0.145

(2.72)

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

40

Fluvastatin

Fluvastatin, 20 mg [0.286 mg/kg/day]

12.1

.

(Arky 1998)

 

 

50

Omeprazole

Omeprazole, 20 mg [0.286 mg/kg/day]

13.6

(–)

(Arky 1998)

 

 

80

Formaldehyde: conventional home air (12 hours/day)

Formaldehyde, 133 ”g [0.0019 mg/kg/day]

0.145

(2.72)

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

90

Coffee, 11.6 g

Caffeic acid, 20.8 mg [0.297 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Clarke and Macrae 1988; Coffee Research Institute 2001)

 

 

100

d-Limonene in food

d-Limonene, 15.5 mg [0.221 mg/kg/day]

22.0

(–)

(Stofberg and Grundschober 1987)

 

 

100

Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), 5.34 g

Mixture of hydrazines, etc. (whole mushroom) [76.3 mg/kg/day]

(–)

966

(Matsumoto et al. 1991; Toth and Erickson 1986; U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2002)

 

 

100

Gasoline station workers (1997)

MTBE, 24.2 mg [0.346 mg/kg/day]

45.7

(615)

(Brown 1997)

 

 

200

Lovastatin

Lovastatin, 20 mg [0.286 mg/kg/day]

(–)

55.7

(Arky 1998)

 

 

200

Bread, 79 g

Ethyl alcohol, 293 mg [4.19 mg/kg/day]

930

(–)

(Logan and Distefano 1998; Smiciklas-Wright et al. 2002)

 

 

200

Lettuce, 14.9 g

Caffeic acid, 7.90 mg [0.113 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Herrmann 1978; Technical Assessment Systems 1989)

 

 

300

Comfrey herb tea, 1 cup (1.5 g root); FDA has issued an advisory against use

Symphytine, 38 ”g [0.000543 mg/kg/day]

0.146

.

(Culvenor et al. 1980)

 

 

300

Safrole in spices

Safrole, 1.2 mg [0.0171 mg/kg/day]

(40.1)

5.24

(Hall et al. 1989)

 

 

300

Tomato, 88.7 g

Caffeic acid, 5.46 mg [0.078 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Schmidtlein and Herrmann 1975a; Technical Assessment Systems 1989)

 

 

400

Orange juice, 138 g

d-Limonene, 4.28 mg [0.0611 mg/kg/day]

22.0

(–)

(Schreier et al. 1979; Technical Assessment Systems 1989)

 

 

400

Furfural in food

Furfural, 3.64 mg [0.052 mg/kg/day]

(41.4)

18.9

(Adams et al. 1997)

 

 

400

Pepper, black, 500 mg

d-Limonene, 4.00 mg [0.0571 mg/kg/day]

22.0

(–)

(Hasselstrom et al. 1957; Stofberg and Grundschober 1987)

 

 

500

Coffee, 11.6 g

Catechol, 1.16 mg [0.0166 mg/kg/day]

9.07

(22.9)

(Coffee Research Institute 2001; Rahn and Kšnig 1978; Tressl et al. 1978)

 

 

600

Apple, 32.0 g

Caffeic acid, 3.40 mg [0.0486 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Mosel and Herrmann 1974; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Pesticide Programs 1989)

 

 

800

BHA in total diet (1975)

BHA, 4.6 mg [0.0657 mg/kg/day]

50.1

(317)

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991a)

 

 

900

Acrylamide in total diet

Acrylamide, 28 ”g [0.0004 mg/kg/day]

0.365

.

(DiNovi and Howard 2004)

 

 

1,000

Vinyl acetate production workers (1968)

Vinyl acetate, 1.74 mg [0.0249 mg/kg/day]

27.5

(349)

(Deese and Joyner 1969; Santodonato 1985)

 

 

1,000

Beer (before 1979), 229 ml

Dimethylnitrosamine, 646 ng [0.00000923 mg/kg/day]

0.0104

(0.0190)

(Beer Institute 1999; Fazio et al. 1980; Preussmann and Eisenbrand 1984)

 

 

1,000

Aflatoxin in total diet (1984-89)

Aflatoxin, 18 ng [0.000000257 mg/kg/day]

0.000318

(+)

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1992)

 

 

1,000

Celery, 14 g

Caffeic acid, 1.51 mg [0.0216 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Smiciklas-Wright et al. 2002; Stšhr and Herrmann 1975)

 

 

2,000

d-Limonene

Food additive, 1.01 mg [0.0144 mg/kg/day]

22.0

(–)

(Lucas et al. 1999)

 

 

2,000

Coffee, 11.6 g

Furfural, 783 ”g [0.0112 mg/kg/day]

(41.4)

18.9

(Coffee Research Institute 2001; Silwar et al. 1987)

 

 

2,000

Coffee, 11.6 g

Hydroquinone, 290 ”g [0.00414 mg/kg/day]

8.08

(22.1)

(Coffee Research Institute 2001; Heinrich and Baltes 1987; Tressl et al. 1978)

 

 

2,000

Saccharin in total diet (1977)

Saccharin, 7 mg [0.1 mg/kg/day]

199

(–)

(National Research Council 1979)

 

 

2,000

Potato, 54.9 g

Caffeic acid, 867 ”g [0.0124 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Schmidtlein and Herrmann 1975b; Technical Assessment Systems 1989)

 

 

2,000

Bread, 79 g

Furfural, 584 ”g [0.00834 mg/kg/day]

(41.4)

18.9

(Smiciklas-Wright et al. 2002; Stofberg and Grundschober 1987)

 

 

4,000

Methyleugenol in food

Methyleugenol, 40.0 ”g [0.000571 mg/kg/day]

(2.11)

2.03

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

4,000

Cinnamon, 21.9 mg

Coumarin, 65.0 ”g [0.000929 mg/kg/day]

3.70

(10.5)

(Poole and Poole 1994)

 

 

5,000

BHA in total diet (1987)

BHA, 700 ”g [0.01 mg/kg/day]

50.1

(317)

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991a)

 

 

5,000

Carrot, 12.1 g

Caffeic acid, 374 ”g [0.00534 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Stšhr and Herrmann 1975; Technical Assessment Systems 1989)

 

 

5,000

Nutmeg, 17.6 mg

d-Limonene, 299 ”g [0.00427 mg/kg/day]

22.0

(–)

(Bejnarowicz and Kirch 1963; U.S. Department of Agriculture 2000)

 

 

6,000

Coffee, 11.6 g

4-Methylcatechol, 378 ”g [0.0054 mg/kg/day]

29.9

.

(Coffee Research Institute 2001; Heinrich and Baltes 1987; International Agency for Research on Cancer 1991)

 

 

6,000

French fries (restaurant), 12.2 g

Acrylamide, 4.06 ”g [0.000058 mg/kg/day]

0.365

.

(DiNovi and Howard 2004)

 

 

6,000

DDT in total diet (before 1972 ban) b

DDT, 13.8 ”g [0.000197 mg/kg/day]

(8.44)

1.26

(Duggan and Corneliussen 1972)

 

 

7,000

Ethylene thiourea in total diet (1990)

Ethylene thiourea, 9.51 ”g [0.000136 mg/kg/day]

0.924

(2.38)

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1991)

 

 

7,000

Coffee, 11.6 g

Acrylamide, 3.69 ”g [0.0000527 mg/kg/day]

0.365

.

(Andzejewski et al., 2004; Coffee Research Institute, 2001)

 

 

7,000

Pear, 3.7 g

Caffeic acid, 270 ”g [0.00386 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Mosel and Herrmann 1974; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1997)

 

 

7,000

French fries (oven baked), 5.12 g

Acrylamide, 3.57 ”g [0.000051 mg/kg/day]

0.365

.

(DiNovi and Howard 2004)

 

 

8,000

Plum, 1.7 g

Caffeic acid, 235 ”g [0.00336 mg/kg/day]

26.8

(437)

(Mosel and Herrmann 1974; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1997)

 

 

8,000

Estragole in spices

Estragole, 54.0 ”g [0.000771 mg/kg/day]

.

6.38

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

8,000

Breakfast cereal, 22.7 g

Acrylamide, 3.01 ”g [0.000043 mg/kg/day]

0.365

.

(DiNovi and Howard 2004)

 

 

9,000

Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, 5.34 g)

Glutamyl-p-hydrazinobenzoate, 224 ”g [0.0032 mg/kg/day]

.

28.0

(Chauhan et al. 1985; U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2002)

 

 

9,000

Potato chips, 5.26 g

Acrylamide, 2.87 ”g [0.000041 mg/kg/day]

0.365

.

(DiNovi and Howard 2004)

 

 

10,000

Bacon, 19 g

Diethylnitrosamine, 19 ng [0.000000271 mg/kg/day]

0.00269

(+)

(Sen et al. 1979; Smiciklas-Wright et al. 2002)

 

 

10,000

Allspice, 2.08 mg

Methyleugenol, 13.9 ”g [0.000199 mg/kg/day]

(2.11)

2.03

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

10,000

Nutmeg, 17.6 mg

Methyleugenol, 13.7 ”g [0.000196 mg/kg/day]

(2.11)

2.03

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

10,000

[UDMH in total diet (1988)]

[UDMH, 2.82 ”g (from Alar)] [0.0000403 mg/kg/day]

(–)

0.421

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Pesticide Programs 1989)

 

 

10,000

Toxaphene in total diet (before 1982 ban) b

Toxaphene, 6.43 ”g [0.0000919 mg/kg/day]

(–)

0.996

(Podrebarac 1984)

 

 

10,000

Professional vehicle drivers (1997)

MTBE, 262 ”g [0.00374 mg/kg/day]

45.7

(615)

(Brown 1997)

 

 

10,000

Bacon, 19 g

Dimethylnitrosamine, 57.0 ng [0.000000814 mg/kg/day]

0.0104

(0.0190)

(Sen et al. 1979; Smiciklas-Wright et al. 2002)

 

 

10,000

Benzene: home air (12 hours/day)

Benzene, 45.5 ”g [0.00065 mg/kg/day]

(18.5)

8.50

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

10,000

Bacon, 19 g

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine, 324 ng [0.00000463 mg/kg/day]

(0.0877)

0.0624

(Smiciklas-Wright et al. 2002; Tricker and Preussmann 1991)

 

 

10,000

DDE in total diet (before 1972 ban) b

DDE, 6.91 ”g [0.0000987 mg/kg/day]

(–)

1.43

(Duggan and Corneliussen 1972)

 

 

10,000

Basil, 18.7 mg

Methyleugenol, 9.7 ”g [0.000139 mg/kg/day]

(2.11)

2.03

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

20,000

Tap water, 1 liter (1987-92)

Chloroform, 51 ”g [0.000729 mg/kg/day]

(26.7)

11.8

(American Water Works Association. Government Affairs Office 1993; McKone 1987, 1993)

 

 

20,000

Basil, 18.7 mg

Estragole, 27.0 ”g [0.000386 mg/kg/day]

.

6.38

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

20,000

Methyleugenol

Food additive, 6.41 ”g [0.0000916 mg/kg/day]

(2.11)

2.03

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

30,000

Celery, 14 g

8-Methoxypsoralen, 8.56 ”g [0.000122 mg/kg/day]

3.33

(–)

(Beier et al. 1983; Smiciklas-Wright et al. 2002)

 

 

30,000

Tap water, 1 liter (1987-92)

Bromodichloromethane, 13 ”g [0.000186 mg/kg/day]

(8.59)

5.24

(American Water Works Association. Government Affairs Office 1993)

 

 

30,000

Carbaryl in total diet (1990)

Carbaryl, 2.6 ”g [0.0000371 mg/kg/day]

1.05

(–)

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

30,000

EDB in total diet (before 1984 ban) b

EDB, 420 ng [0.000006 mg/kg/day]

0.170

(0.764)

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Office of Pesticide Programs February 8, 1984 1984)

 

 

30,000

TCDD in total diet (1994)

TCDD, 5.4 pg [0.0000000000771 mg/kg/day]

0.00000223

(0.0000144)

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2000)

 

 

30,000

Mustard, 18.9 mg

Allyl isothiocyanate, 17.4 ”g [0.000249 mg/kg/day]

8.22

(–)

(Lucas et al. 1999)

 

 

40,000

Furfural

Food additive, 36.4 ”g [0.00052 mg/kg/day]

(41.4)

18.9

(Lucas et al. 1999)

 

 

40,000

Mango, 1.0 g

d-Limonene, 40.0 ”g [0.000571 mg/kg/day]

22.0

(–)

(Engel and Tressl 1983; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1997)

 

 

40,000

Fennel, 18.7 mg

Estragole, 10.5 ”g [0.00015 mg/kg/day]

.

6.38

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

50,000

Beer (1994-95), 229 ml

Dimethylnitrosamine, 16 ng [0.000000229 mg/kg/day]

0.0104

(0.0190)

(Beer Institute 1999; Gl—ria et al. 1997)

 

 

50,000

Canned black olives, 641 mg

Acrylamide, 490 ng [0.000007 mg/kg/day]

0.365

.

(DiNovi and Howard 2004)

 

 

50,000

Hamburger, pan fried, 85 g

PhIP, 176 ng [0.00000251 mg/kg/day]

0.132 a

(2.49) a

(Knize et al. 1994; Technical Assessment Systems 1989)

 

 

50,000

Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), 5.34 g

p-Hydrazinobenzoate, 58.6 ”g [0.000837 mg/kg/day]

.

45.6 a

(Chauhan et al. 1985; U.S. Food and Drug Administration 2002)

 

 

50,000

Allyl isothiocyanate

Food additive, 10.5 ”g [0.00015 mg/kg/day]

8.22

(–)

(Lucas et al. 1999)

 

 

60,000

Tetrachloroethylene: home air (12 hours/day)

Tetrachloroethylene, 17.0 ”g [0.000243 mg/kg/day]

13.9

(17.8)

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

70,000

Benzene: outdoor air (2 hours/day)

Benzene, 8.84 ”g [0.000126 mg/kg/day]

(18.5)

8.50

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

80,000

Estragole

Food additive, 5.79 ”g [0.0000827 mg/kg/day]

.

6.38

(Lucas et al. 1999)

 

 

80,000

Anise, 2.44 mg

Estragole, 5.65 ”g [0.0000807 mg/kg/day]

.

6.38

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

100,000

Toxaphene in total diet (1990) b

Toxaphene, 595 ng [0.0000085 mg/kg/day]

(–)

0.996

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

100,000

Toast, 79 g

Urethane, 948 ng [0.0000135 mg/kg/day]

(4.12)

1.74

(Canas et al. 1989; Smiciklas-Wright et al. 2002)

 

 

100,000

Beer, 229 ml

Furfural, 9.50 ”g [0.000136 mg/kg/day]

(41.4)

18.9

(Beer Institute 1999; Lau and Lindsay 1972; Tressl 1976; Wheeler et al. 1971)

 

 

200,000

DDE/DDT in total diet (1990) b

DDE, 659 ng [0.00000941 mg/kg/day]

(–)

1.43

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

200,000

Parsnip, 48.8 mg

8-Methoxypsoralen, 1.42 ”g [0.0000203 mg/kg/day]

3.33

(–)

(Ivie et al. 1981; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1997)

 

 

200,000

1,4-Dichlorobenzene: home air (12 hours/day)

1,4-Dichlorobenzene, 10.8 ”g [0.000154 mg/kg/day]

(58.1)

34.3

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

200,000

Tetrachloroethylene: outdoor air (2 hours/day)

Tetrachloroethylene, 4.30 ”g [0.0000614 mg/kg/day]

13.9

(17.8)

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

200,000

PCBs in total diet (1984-86)

PCBs, 98 ng [0.0000014 mg/kg/day]

0.346

(0.893)

(Gunderson 1995)

 

 

300,000

Parsley, 257 mg

8-Methoxypsoralen, 928 ng [0.0000133 mg/kg/day]

3.33

(–)

(Chaudhary et al. 1986; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1997)

 

 

300,000

Hamburger, pan fried, 85 g

MeIQx, 38.1 ng [0.000000544 mg/kg/day]

0.164

(2.49)

(Knize et al. 1994; Technical Assessment Systems 1989)

 

 

400,000

Dicofol in total diet (1990)

Dicofol, 544 ng [0.00000777 mg/kg/day]

(–)

3.14

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

1,000,000

Hamburger, pan fried, 85 g

IQ, 6.38 ng [0.0000000911 mg/kg/day]

0.0936 a

(2.07)

(Knize et al. 1994; Technical Assessment Systems 1989)

 

 

1,000,000

Beer, 229 ml

Urethane, 102 ng [0.00000146 mg/kg/day]

(4.12)

1.74

(Beer Institute 1999; Canas et al. 1989)

 

 

1,000,000

1,4-Dichlorobenzene: outdoor air (2 hours/day)

1,4-Dichlorobenzene, 1.67 ”g [0.0000239 mg/kg/day]

(58.1)

34.3

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

2,000,000

Trichloroethylene: home air (12 hours/day)

Trichloroethylene, 3.09 ”g [0.0000441 mg/kg/day]

67.9

(171)

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

2,000,000

Hexachlorobenzene in total diet (1990) b

Hexachlorobenzene, 14 ng [0.0000002 mg/kg/day]

0.423

(6.68)

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

5,000,000

Banana, 273 mg

Methyleugenol, 30 ng [0.000000429 mg/kg/day]

(2.11)

2.03

(Smith et al. 2002)

 

 

7,000,000

Lindane in total diet (1990)

Lindane, 32 ng [0.000000457 mg/kg/day]

(–)

3.02

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

10,000,000

Trichloroethylene: outdoor air (2 hours/day)

Trichloroethylene, 478 ng [0.00000683 mg/kg/day]

67.9

(171)

(Air Resources Board 2005)

 

 

20,000,000

PCNB in total diet (1990)

PCNB (Quintozene), 19.2 ng [0.000000274 mg/kg/day]

(–)

6.51

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

90,000,000

Chlorobenzilate in total diet (1989) b

Chlorobenzilate, 6.4 ng [0.0000000914 mg/kg/day]

(–)

8.46

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1990)

 

 

100,000,000

Captan in total diet (1990)

Captan, 115 ng [0.00000164 mg/kg/day]

159

(241)

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

1,000,000,000

Folpet in total diet (1990)

Folpet, 12.8 ng [0.000000183 mg/kg/day]

(–)

184

(U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

 

>1,000,000,000

Chlorothalonil in total diet (1990)

Chlorothalonil, <6.4 ng [0.0000000914 mg/kg/day]

87.8 c

(–)

(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1987; U.S. Food and Drug Administration 1991b)

 

a LTD10 harmonic mean was estimated for the base chemical from the hydrochloride salt.

b No longer contained in any registered pesticide product (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1998).

c Additional data from the EPA that is not in the CPDB were used to calculate this LTD10 harmonic mean.

 

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