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The Carcinogenic Potency Project

1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone (CAS 81-49-2)
SMILES, InChI and Structure are below.
Rats and Mice: Cancer Test Summary
Rat Target Sites Mouse Target Sites TD50 (mg/kg/day)
Male Female Male Female Rat Mouse
kid lgi liv ubl kid lgi liv ubl liv lun sto liv lun sto 46m 477m

Key to the Table Above

Positivity: For each chemical with a positive (carcinogenic) experiment in the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), results are included on carcinogenic potency (TD50) in each species and target sites in males and females. Positivity is determined by an author’s opinion in a published paper. If all experimental results in the CDPB are negative in a sex-species group, “no positive” appears. If the CPDB has no experiments in the sex-species group, “no test” appears. The summary presents the strongest evidence of carcinogenicity in each group. If there are both positive and negative experiments in a sex-species, the negative results are ignored in this Summary Table.
Target Site Codes:   kid = kidney. lgi = large intestine. liv = liver. lun = lung. sto = stomach. ubl = urinary bladder. Target sites are listed if any author of published experimental results concluded that tumors were induced in that organ by the test agent. If there is more than one positive experiment in a sex-species, target sites listed may be from more than one experiment, e.g. if liver and lung are both listed, then liver may have been a target in one experiment and lung in another.
TD50: Our standardized measure of carcinogenic potency, TD50, is the daily dose rate in mg/kg body weight/day to induce tumors in half of test animals that would have remained tumor-free at zero dose. Whenever there is more than one positive experiment in a species, the reported TD50 value is a Harmonic Mean calculated using the TD50 value from the most potent target site in each positive experiment.
Superscripts:   m = There is more than one positive experiment in the species, and TD50 values from each positive experiment are used in the calculation of the reported Harmonic mean of TD50.

The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a unique and widely used international resource of the results of 6540 chronic, long-term animal cancer tests on 1547 chemicals. The CPDB provides easy access to the bioassay literature, with qualitative and quantitative analyses of both positive and negative experiments that have been published over the past 50 years in the general literature through 2001 and by the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program through 2004. The CPDB standardizes the diverse literature of cancer bioassays that vary widely in protocol, histopathological examination and nomenclature, and in the published author’s choices of what information to provide in their papers. Results are reported in the CPDB for tests in rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, and nonhuman primates.

For each experiment, information is included on species, strain, and sex of test animal; features of experimental protocol such as route of administration, duration of dosing, dose level(s) in mg/kg body weight/day, and duration of experiment; experimental results are provided on target organ, tumor type, and tumor incidence; carcinogenic potency (TD50) and its statistical significance; shape of the dose-response, author’s opinion as to carcinogenicity, and literature citation.

Only tests with dosing for at least ¼ the standard lifespan of the species and experiment length at least ½ the lifespan are included in the CPDB. Only routes of administration with whole body exposure are included. Doses are standardized, average dose rates in mg/kg/day. A description of methods used in the CPDB to standardize the diverse literature of animal cancer tests is presented for: 1) Criteria for inclusion of experiments 2) Standardization of average daily dose levels and 3) TD50 estimation for a standard lifespan. See Methods for other details.

TD50 provides a standardized quantitative measure that can be used for comparisons and analyses of many issues in carcinogenesis. The range of TD50 values across chemicals that are rodent carcinogens is more than 100 million-fold. More than half the chemicals tested are positive in at least one experiment.

A plot of all results on each experiment in the CPDB for this chemical is presented below. These results are the source information for the Cancer Test Summary table above.

1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone: All Experiments and Citations in CPDB

The definition of each code in the plot below will appear in a pop-up window when the field name in the header line is clicked, e.g., Strain, Site, Path. Each numbered line starts a new experiment and reports protocol information in black. Average daily dose-rates per kg body weight per day are in green. Remaining lines report experimental results in blue.

Abbreviations of fields in header line: # = the line number in the plot of all CPDB chemicals; Xpo = duration of dosing; Xpt = duration of experiment; Site = tissue; Path = tumor type; DR = dose-response; AuOp = author’s opinion about carcinogenicity; LoConf, UpConf = confidence limits (99%) on TD50; Inc = tumor incidence for each dose group.

See Guide to reading the plot for details on each field, using an example of one experiment.

See Help to improve readability, or to fit the plot onto the screen or a printed page.



Chemical (Synonym) CAS
# Species Sex Strain Route Xpo+Xpt PaperNum        0 Dose  1 Dose 2 Dose  3 Dose          Literature Reference or NCI/NTP:Site Path
Site Path Notes   TD50  DR Pval    AuOp LoConf UpConf   Cntrl   1 Inc  2 Inc   3 Inc                                                        Brkly Code

1-AMINO-2,4-DIBROMOANTHRAQUINONE 81-49-2 288 M f b6c eat 24m24 TR383 : 0 1.29gm 2.60gm liv MXA 490.mg \ P<.0005 c 312.mg 912.mg 6/50 46/50 (50/50) liv:hpa,hpc. liv hpa 515.mg \ P<.0005 c 327.mg 965.mg 6/50 45/50 (49/50) MXB MXB 546.mg \ P<.0005 328.mg 1.18gm 12/50 48/50 (50/50) for:sqc,sqp; liv:hpa,hpc; lun:a/a,a/c. C for MXA 1.23gm * P<.0005 c 856.mg 2.04gm 2/50 25/50 34/50 for:sqc,sqp. liv hpc 1.53gm * P<.0005 c 1.08gm 2.28gm 0/50 23/50 27/50 for sqp 1.76gm * P<.0005 c 1.15gm 3.28gm 2/50 16/50 27/50 lun a/a 1.99gm \ P<.003 c 966.mg 10.9gm 4/50 17/50 (13/50) lun MXA 1.99gm \ P<.003 c 966.mg 10.9gm 4/50 17/50 (15/50) lun:a/a,a/c. pit pda 3.75gm \ P<.006 1.64gm 38.3gm 1/50 9/50 (4/50) S for sqc 3.93gm * P<.0005 c 2.39gm 8.33gm 0/50 12/50 11/50 ute MXA 6.82gm \ P<.008 2.57gm 107.gm 0/50 5/50 (0/50) ute:esp,ess. S TBA MXB 1.03gm \ P<.02 461.mg n.s.s. 32/50 50/50 (50/50) liv MXB 490.mg \ P<.0005 312.mg 912.mg 6/50 46/50 (50/50) liv:hpa,hpb,hpc. lun MXB 1.99gm \ P<.003 966.mg 10.9gm 4/50 17/50 (15/50) lun:a/a,a/c. 289 M m b6c eat 24m24 TR383 : 0 1.20gm 2.40gm liv hpa 464.mg \ P<.0005 c 275.mg 955.mg 10/50 38/51 (39/50) MXB MXB 465.mg \ P<.0005 261.mg 1.17gm 24/50 46/51 (45/50) for:sqc,sqp; liv:hpa,hpb,hpc; lun:a/a,a/c. C liv MXA 467.mg \ P<.0005 c 269.mg 1.06gm 18/50 43/51 (42/50) liv:hpa,hpc. liv MXA 467.mg \ P<.0005 c 269.mg 1.06gm 18/50 43/51 (42/50) liv:hpa,hpb,hpc. lun MXA 817.mg \ P<.0005 c 445.mg 2.18gm 10/50 28/51 (25/50) lun:a/a,a/c. lun a/a 831.mg \ P<.0005 c 461.mg 2.03gm 7/50 26/51 (24/50) for MXA 1.13gm * P<.0005 c 773.mg 1.72gm 0/50 19/51 27/50 for:sqc,sqp. for sqp 1.68gm * P<.0005 c 1.07gm 2.87gm 0/50 13/51 16/50 liv MXA 1.87gm * P<.0005 c 1.07gm 5.46gm 9/50 20/51 24/50 liv:hpb,hpc. liv hpc 2.24gm * P<.0005 c 1.22gm 8.72gm 9/50 18/51 21/50 for sqc 2.73gm * P<.0005 c 1.67gm 4.97gm 0/50 12/51 13/50 liv hpb 9.25gm * P<.004 c 4.12gm 55.1gm 0/50 3/51 5/50 TBA MXB 566.mg \ P<.002 289.mg 2.58gm 37/50 49/51 (47/50) liv MXB 467.mg \ P<.0005 269.mg 1.06gm 18/50 43/51 (42/50) liv:hpa,hpb,hpc. lun MXB 817.mg \ P<.0005 445.mg 2.18gm 10/50 28/51 (25/50) lun:a/a,a/c. 290 R f f34 eat 24m24 TR383 : 0 99.2mg 247.mg 495.mg MXB MXB 31.0mg Z P<.0005 20.8mg 48.8mg 0/50 39/40 (60/60 48/50) cec:pla; col:adc,pla; kid:rua,ruc; liv:hcc,hpa, hpc; rec:adc,pla; ubl:tcc,tpp,tsc,tsp. C liv MXA 40.1mg Z P<.0005 c 26.2mg 65.7mg 0/50 33/40 (59/60 47/50) liv:hpa,hpc. liv hpa 53.9mg Z P<.0005 c 34.1mg 92.2mg 0/50 28/40 (47/60 29/50) MXA pla 72.9mg * P<.0005 c 57.1mg 94.9mg 0/50 28/40 53/60 43/50 cec:pla; col:pla; rec:pla. rec pla 74.0mg * P<.0005 57.9mg 96.4mg 0/50 27/40 53/60 43/50 S liv hpc 88.4mg * P<.0005 c 68.5mg 116.mg 0/50 12/40 57/60 45/50 ubl MXA 304.mg Z P<.0005 c 208.mg 466.mg 0/50 2/40 17/60 26/50 ubl:tcc,tpp,tsc,tsp. kid MXA 388.mg * P<.0005 c 254.mg 628.mg 0/50 3/40 16/60 16/50 kid:rua,ruc. kid rua 388.mg * P<.0005 c 254.mg 628.mg 0/50 3/40 16/60 16/50 MXA adc 414.mg * P<.0005 c 266.mg 699.mg 0/50 2/40 21/60 8/50 col:adc; rec:adc. rec adc 420.mg Z P<.0005 246.mg 798.mg 0/50 1/40 19/60 (7/50) S liv hcc 566.mg Z P<.0005 c 343.mg 1.02gm 0/50 0/40 11/60 13/50 ubl tcc 656.mg Z P<.0005 c 394.mg 1.18gm 0/50 0/40 8/60 16/50 ubl tpp 782.mg * P<.0005 446.mg 1.54gm 0/50 2/40 7/60 9/50 S ski sqp 2.60gm * P<.03 933.mg n.s.s. 1/50 0/40 3/60 3/50 S TBA MXB 160.mg * P<.0005 93.0mg 457.mg 46/50 40/40 60/60 48/50 liv MXB 40.1mg Z P<.0005 26.2mg 65.7mg 0/50 33/40 (59/60 47/50) liv:hpa,hpb,hpc. 291 R f f34 eat 66w66 TR383a : 0 1.00gm liv MXA 121.mg P<.0005 65.9mg 289.mg 0/10 16/20 liv:hpa,hpc. S liv hpc 124.mg P<.0005 66.9mg 309.mg 0/10 15/20 S liv hpa 219.mg P<.002 106.mg 787.mg 0/10 10/20 S MXA pla 1.27gm P<.08 381.mg n.s.s. 0/10 3/20 cec:pla; col:pla; rec:pla. kid MXA 1.52gm P<.2 373.mg n.s.s. 0/10 2/20 kid:rua,ruc. kid rua 1.52gm P<.2 373.mg n.s.s. 0/10 2/20 ubl MXA 2.19gm P<.2 535.mg n.s.s. 0/10 2/20 ubl:tcc,tpp,tsc,tsp. ubl tcc 4.83gm P<.4 787.mg n.s.s. 0/10 1/20 kid ruc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/20 liv hcc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/20 MXA adc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/20 col:adc; rec:adc. TBA MXB 147.mg P<.002 71.1mg 803.mg 2/10 17/20 liv MXB 121.mg P<.0005 65.9mg 289.mg 0/10 16/20 liv:hpa,hpb,hpc. 292 R f f34 eat 40w66 TR383b : 0 606.mg liv MXA 121.mg P<.002 54.5mg 484.mg 0/10 8/10 liv:hpa,hpc. S liv hpc 167.mg P<.004 68.3mg 1.16gm 0/10 6/10 S liv hpa 191.mg P<.004 77.5mg 1.30gm 0/10 6/10 S MXA pla 217.mg P<.007 82.6mg 3.52gm 0/10 5/10 cec:pla; col:pla; rec:pla. S rec pla 217.mg P<.007 82.6mg 3.52gm 0/10 5/10 S kid MXA 418.mg P<.04 127.mg n.s.s. 0/10 3/10 kid:rua,ruc. S kid rua 418.mg P<.04 127.mg n.s.s. 0/10 3/10 S kid ruc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/10 liv hcc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/10 MXA adc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/10 col:adc; rec:adc. ubl tcc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/10 ubl MXA no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/10 ubl:tcc,tpp,tsc,tsp. TBA MXB 135.mg P<.02 51.5mg n.s.s. 2/10 9/10 liv MXB 121.mg P<.002 54.5mg 484.mg 0/10 8/10 liv:hpa,hpb,hpc. 293 R m f34 eat 24m24 TR383 : 0 79.5mg 198.mg 396.mg liv MXA 53.8mg * P<.0005 c 40.4mg 76.2mg 2/50 25/40 57/60 47/50 liv:hpa,hpc. MXB MXB 54.6mg * P<.0005 40.3mg 80.3mg 4/50 30/40 59/60 48/50 col:adc,pla; kid:rua,ruc; liv:hcc,hpa,hpc; rec: adc,pla; ubl:tcc,tpp. C liv hpc 59.6mg Z P<.0005 c 42.2mg 88.5mg 1/50 12/40 55/60 (46/50) rec pla 64.3mg * P<.0005 48.4mg 86.9mg 0/50 13/40 51/60 40/50 S MXA pla 64.3mg * P<.0005 c 48.4mg 86.9mg 0/50 13/40 51/60 40/50 col:pla; rec:pla. liv hpa 71.4mg * P<.0005 c 52.5mg 105.mg 1/50 20/40 40/60 34/50 tes MXA 133.mg * P<.002 70.4mg 630.mg 43/50 37/40 55/60 42/50 tes:iab,ica. S kid MXA 264.mg * P<.0005 c 157.mg 637.mg 2/50 10/40 13/60 15/50 kid:rua,ruc. kid rua 292.mg * P<.0005 c 168.mg 782.mg 2/50 10/40 11/60 14/50 MXA adc 320.mg * P<.0005 c 197.mg 556.mg 0/50 1/40 11/60 17/50 col:adc; rec:adc. rec adc 363.mg * P<.0005 218.mg 650.mg 0/50 1/40 10/60 15/50 S ubl MXA 564.mg Z P<.0005 c 304.mg 1.18gm 0/50 1/40 3/60 12/50 ubl:tcc,tpp. lun MXA 794.mg * P<.005 379.mg 7.40gm 0/50 3/40 4/60 4/50 lun:a/a,a/c. S ubl tpp 846.mg * P<.0005 404.mg 2.30gm 0/50 1/40 2/60 8/50 S liv hcc 1.23gm * P<.005 c 524.mg 9.78gm 0/50 0/40 6/60 2/50 ubl tcc 1.79gm * P<.003 c 667.mg 11.0gm 0/50 0/40 1/60 4/50 col adc 2.01gm * P<.004 718.mg 13.6gm 0/50 0/40 1/60 4/50 S lun a/a 1.29gm * P<.02 523.mg n.s.s. 0/50 2/40 2/60 3/50 S col pla 1.66gm * P<.02 609.mg n.s.s. 0/50 1/40 1/60 3/50 S TBA MXB 130.mg * P<.002 70.0mg 532.mg 47/50 40/40 59/60 48/50 liv MXB 53.8mg * P<.0005 40.4mg 76.2mg 2/50 25/40 57/60 47/50 liv:hpa,hpb,hpc. 294 R m f34 eat 66w66 TR383a : 0 800.mg liv MXA 102.mg P<.0005 59.6mg 227.mg 0/10 20/20 liv:hpa,hpc. S liv hpc 114.mg P<.0005 65.7mg 259.mg 0/10 19/20 S liv hpa 386.mg P<.008 174.mg 5.76gm 0/10 8/20 S MXA pla 426.mg P<.02 184.mg n.s.s. 0/10 7/20 col:pla; rec:pla. S rec pla 426.mg P<.02 184.mg n.s.s. 0/10 7/20 S kid MXA 1.77gm P<.2 434.mg n.s.s. 0/10 2/20 kid:rua,ruc. kid rua 1.77gm P<.2 434.mg n.s.s. 0/10 2/20 MXA adc 1.87gm P<.2 461.mg n.s.s. 0/10 2/20 col:adc; rec:adc. ubl tcc 3.64gm P<.4 593.mg n.s.s. 0/10 1/20 ubl MXA 3.64gm P<.4 593.mg n.s.s. 0/10 1/20 ubl:tcc,tpp. liv hcc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/20 TBA MXB 193.mg P<.07 76.2mg n.s.s. 5/10 20/20 liv MXB 102.mg P<.0005 59.6mg 227.mg 0/10 20/20 liv:hpa,hpb,hpc. 295 R m f34 eat 39w66 TR383b : 0 473.mg liv MXA 70.3mg P<.0005 32.0mg 227.mg 0/10 9/10 liv:hpa,hpc. S liv hpc 95.8mg P<.002 40.5mg 395.mg 0/10 7/10 S liv hpa 97.8mg P<.002 41.1mg 414.mg 0/10 7/10 S kid MXA 239.mg P<.03 72.4mg n.s.s. 0/10 3/10 kid:rua,ruc. S kid rua 239.mg P<.03 72.4mg n.s.s. 0/10 3/10 S MXA pla 297.mg P<.03 88.0mg n.s.s. 0/10 3/10 col:pla; rec:pla. S rec pla 297.mg P<.03 88.0mg n.s.s. 0/10 3/10 S liv hcc 1.24gm P<.3 202.mg n.s.s. 0/10 1/10 MXA adc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/10 col:adc; rec:adc. ubl tcc no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/10 ubl MXA no dre P=1. n.s.s. n.s.s. 0/10 0/10 ubl:tcc,tpp. TBA MXB 123.mg P<.2 38.4mg n.s.s. 5/10 9/10 liv MXB 70.3mg P<.0005 32.0mg 227.mg 0/10 9/10 liv:hpa,hpb,hpc.

Mutagenicity in Salmonella: positive
SMILES Code for 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone: O=C1C2=C(C(=CC(=C2C(=O)C3=C1C=CC=C3)Br)Br)N
InChI Code for 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone: InChI=1/C14H7Br2NO2/c15-8-5-9(16)12(17)11-10(8)13(18)6-3-1-2-4-7(6)14(11)19/h1-5H,17H2
Source for SMILES and InChI: USEPA Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database
Chemical Structure for 1-Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone: Chemical Structure
Source for structure: National Library of Medicine ChemIDPlus

See full CPDB Summary Table on 1547 chemicals. See Full CPDB for all results on 6540 experiments of 1547 chemicals.

A complete list of CPDB chemicals, which is searchable by name or by CAS number, is available here.

For a compendium of CPDB results organized by target organ, which lists all chemicals in each species that induced tumors in each of 35 organs, see Summary Table by Target Organ.

The CPDB is available in several formats that permit printing and downloading into spreadsheets and statistical databases.

  1. A plot of the CPDB presents results of 1547 experiments on 6540 chemicals in an easily readable format that has been used in publications of the CPDB.
  2. A Screen version plot for use on a single computer screen, with the same data.
  3. Excel version of the same data.
  4. Tab-separated versions of the same data, which can be easily read into databases.

A Supplementary Dataset gives details on dosing and survival for each experiment.

Relatively precise estimates of the lower confidence limit on the TD10 (LTD10) are readily calculated from the TD50 and its lower confidence limit, which are reported in the CPDB. For researchers and regulatory agencies interested in LTD10 values, we provide them in an Excel spreadsheet.

PDF versions of our publications of analyses using the CPDB are available, organized by year and by research topic.


Carcinogenic Potency Database Project (CPDB) Home Page
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