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Carcinogenic Potency Project

C.I. direct blue 15 (CAS 2429-74-5)
SMILES, InChI and Structure are below.
Rats and Mice: Cancer Test Summary
Rat Target Sites Mouse Target Sites TD50 (mg/kg/day)
Male Female Male Female Rat Mouse
ezy lgi liv orc pre ski smi cli ezy hmo lgi liv orc ski smi ute no test no test 27.5m no test

Key to the Table Above

Positivity: For each chemical with a positive (carcinogenic) experiment in the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), results are included on carcinogenic potency (TD50) in each species and target sites in males and females. Positivity is determined by an author’s opinion in a published paper. If all experimental results in the CDPB are negative in a sex-species group, “no positive” appears. If the CPDB has no experiments in the sex-species group, “no test” appears. The summary presents the strongest evidence of carcinogenicity in each group. If there are both positive and negative experiments in a sex-species, the negative results are ignored in this Summary Table.
Target Site Codes:   cli = clitoral gland. ezy = ear/Zymbal’s gland. hmo = hematopoietic system. lgi = large intestine. liv = liver. orc = oral cavity (includes tissues of the mouth, oropharynx, pharynx, and larynx). pre = preputial gland. ski = skin. smi = small intestine. ute = uterus. Target sites are listed if any author of published experimental results concluded that tumors were induced in that organ by the test agent. If there is more than one positive experiment in a sex-species, target sites listed may be from more than one experiment, e.g. if liver and lung are both listed, then liver may have been a target in one experiment and lung in another.
TD50: Our standardized measure of carcinogenic potency, TD50, is the daily dose rate in mg/kg body weight/day to induce tumors in half of test animals that would have remained tumor-free at zero dose. Whenever there is more than one positive experiment in a species, the reported TD50 value is a Harmonic Mean calculated using the TD50 value from the most potent target site in each positive experiment.
Superscripts:   m = There is more than one positive experiment in the species, and TD50 values from each positive experiment are used in the calculation of the reported Harmonic mean of TD50.

The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a unique and widely used international resource of the results of 6540 chronic, long-term animal cancer tests on 1547 chemicals. The CPDB provides easy access to the bioassay literature, with qualitative and quantitative analyses of both positive and negative experiments that have been published over the past 50 years in the general literature through 2001 and by the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program through 2004. The CPDB standardizes the diverse literature of cancer bioassays that vary widely in protocol, histopathological examination and nomenclature, and in the published author’s choices of what information to provide in their papers. Results are reported in the CPDB for tests in rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, and nonhuman primates.

For each experiment, information is included on species, strain, and sex of test animal; features of experimental protocol such as route of administration, duration of dosing, dose level(s) in mg/kg body weight/day, and duration of experiment; experimental results are provided on target organ, tumor type, and tumor incidence; carcinogenic potency (TD50) and its statistical significance; shape of the dose-response, author’s opinion as to carcinogenicity, and literature citation.

Only tests with dosing for at least ¼ the standard lifespan of the species and experiment length at least ½ the lifespan are included in the CPDB. Only routes of administration with whole body exposure are included. Doses are standardized, average dose rates in mg/kg/day. A description of methods used in the CPDB to standardize the diverse literature of animal cancer tests is presented for: 1) Criteria for inclusion of experiments 2) Standardization of average daily dose levels and 3) TD50 estimation for a standard lifespan. See Methods for other details.

TD50 provides a standardized quantitative measure that can be used for comparisons and analyses of many issues in carcinogenesis. The range of TD50 values across chemicals that are rodent carcinogens is more than 100 million-fold. More than half the chemicals tested are positive in at least one experiment.

A plot of all results on each experiment in the CPDB for this chemical is presented below. These results are the source information for the Cancer Test Summary table above.

C.I. direct blue 15: All Experiments and Citations in CPDB
The definition of each code in the plot below will appear in a pop-up window when the field name in the header line is clicked, e.g., Strain, Site, Path. Each numbered line starts a new experiment and reports protocol information in black. Average daily dose-rates per kg body weight per day are in green. Remaining lines report experimental results in blue.
Abbreviations of fields in header line: # = the line number in the plot of all CPDB chemicals; Xpo = duration of dosing; Xpt = duration of experiment; Site = tissue; Path = tumor type; DR = dose-response; AuOp = author’s opinion about carcinogenicity; LoConf, UpConf = confidence limits (99%) on TD50; Inc = tumor incidence for each dose group.
See Guide to reading the plot for details on each field, using an example of one experiment.
See Help to improve readability, or to fit the plot onto the screen or a printed page.

Chemical (Synonym) CAS
# Species Sex Strain Route Xpo+Xpt PaperNum        0 Dose  1 Dose 2 Dose  3 Dose          Literature Reference or NCI/NTP:Site Path
Site Path Notes   TD50  DR Pval    AuOp LoConf UpConf   Cntrl   1 Inc  2 Inc   3 Inc                                                        Brkly Code

C.I. DIRECT BLUE 15 2429-74-5 790 R f f34 wat 96w97 TR397 : 0 35.5mg 70.3mg MXB MXB 21.3mg * P<.0005 15.1mg 32.5mg 16/50 24/35 59/65 45/50 asc:adp; cli:ade,anb,car,cnb; col:adp; dsc:adp; duo:muc; jej:adc,muc; liv:hpc,nnd; mul:mnl; pal:sqc,sqp; ski:sqc,sqp; ton:sqc,sqp; ute:adc,ade; zym: ade,car. C cli MXA 46.2mg * P<.0005 c 30.2mg 80.1mg 7/50 11/35 24/65 27/50 cli:ade,anb,car,cnb. mul mnl 50.0mg * P<.0005 c 31.1mg 7/50 13/35 27/65 15/50 MXA MXA 81.0mg * P<.0005 c 49.7mg 2/50 4/35 19/65 15/50 pal:sqc,sqp; ton:sqc,sqp. cli MXA 90.1mg * P<.0005 50.0mg 5/50 5/35 12/65 12/50 cli:ade,anb. S zym MXA * P<.0005 c 63.4mg 0/50 4/35 11/65 17/50 zym:ade,car. cli MXA * P<.0005 62.4mg 2/50 6/35 12/65 15/50 cli:car,cnb. S ute MXA * P<.004 56.8mg 1.06gm 6/50 8/35 13/65 7/50 ute:esp,ess. S ute esp * P<.008 59.3mg 3.45gm 5/50 8/35 12/65 5/50 S MXA sqp * P<.0005 71.2mg 2/50 3/35 12/65 9/50 pal:sqp; ton:sqp. S zym car * P<.0005 85.9mg 0/50 4/35 7/65 14/50 S pal sqp * P<.0005 86.9mg 0/50 2/35 11/65 7/50 S ski MXA * P<.0005 c 79.8mg 0/50 2/35 6/65 5/50 ski:sqc,sqp. ski sqp * P<.0005 85.6mg 0/50 2/35 5/65 5/50 S MXA sqc * P<.0005 0/50 1/35 8/65 6/50 pal:sqc; ton:sqc. S ton MXA * P<.002 1.38gm 2/50 2/35 4/65 7/50 ton:sqc,sqp. S zym ade * P<.002 1.48gm 0/50 1/35 5/65 3/50 S ton sqc * P<.003 2.35gm 0/50 1/35 3/65 3/50 S liv MXA * P<.0005 c 1.43gm 0/50 0/35 2/65 5/50 liv:hpc,nnd. liv nnd * P<.002 1.92gm 0/50 0/35 2/65 4/50 S pal sqc * P<.003 2.33gm 0/50 0/35 5/65 3/50 S MXA adp * P<.02 c n.s.s. 0/50 0/35 3/65 1/50 asc:adp; col:adp; dsc:adp. ute MXA Z P<.02 c n.s.s. 1/50 0/35 1/65 4/50 ute:adc,ade. MXA MXA * P<.02 c n.s.s. 0/50 0/35 1/65 3/50 duo:muc; jej:adc,muc. jej MXA 1.18gm * P<.02 n.s.s. 0/50 0/35 0/65 3/50 jej:adc,muc. S TBA MXB 20.4mg * P<.0005 13.5mg 36.2mg 43/50 33/35 64/65 49/50 liv MXB * P<.0005 1.43gm 0/50 0/35 2/65 5/50 liv:hpa,hpc,nnd. 791 R m f34 wat 97w97 TR397 : 0 31.5mg 61.7mg MXB MXB 11.8mg * P<.0005 8.18mg 18.0mg 14/50 27/35 59/65 45/50 asc:adp; col:adc,adp; dsc:adp; jej:adc,adp,muc; liv:hpc,nnd; pal:sqp; phr:sqc; pre:ade,anb,car,cnb; ski:bca,bcc,sea,sqc,sqp; ton:sqc,sqp; zym:ade, car. C tes MXA 12.9mg * P<.0005 8.38mg 23.1mg 48/50 32/35 61/65 43/50 tes:iab,ica. S ski MXA 18.1mg Z P<.0005 12.2mg 28.2mg 2/50 10/35 29/65 28/50 ski:bca,bcc,sea. S ski MXA 19.6mg Z P<.0005 c 13.1mg 30.8mg 2/50 9/35 27/65 28/50 ski:bca,bcc. ski bca 21.6mg Z P<.0005 14.0mg 35.3mg 2/50 8/35 23/65 26/50 S mul mnl 23.0mg * P<.0005 e 13.7mg 46.5mg 17/50 19/35 28/65 20/50 amd MXA 36.6mg Z P<.0005 20.7mg 84.2mg 16/50 5/35 21/65 17/50 amd:pbb,phc,phm,pob. S MXA MXA 39.3mg * P<.0005 c 24.9mg 65.4mg 1/50 10/35 24/65 17/50 pal:sqp; phr:sqc; ton:sqc,sqp. amd MXA 39.8mg Z P<.0005 22.1mg 95.2mg 16/50 5/35 19/65 17/50 amd:pbb,pob. S MXA sqp 43.6mg * P<.0005 27.0mg 71.6mg 0/50 9/35 18/65 15/50 pal:sqp; ton:sqp. S pal sqp 47.0mg * P<.0005 29.0mg 77.1mg 0/50 9/35 17/65 15/50 S thy fca 49.7mg Z P<.002 15.1mg 0/50 4/35 (1/65 0/50) S ski MXA 51.0mg Z P<.0005 c 29.3mg 97.2mg 2/50 4/35 11/65 19/50 ski:sqc,sqp. liv MXA 55.2mg * P<.0005 c 31.4mg 0/50 6/35 9/65 11/50 liv:hpc,nnd. pre MXA 55.3mg * P<.0005 c 29.8mg 8/50 5/35 23/65 9/50 pre:ade,anb,car,cnb. liv nnd 65.3mg * P<.0005 34.9mg 0/50 6/35 8/65 7/50 S pre MXA 77.1mg * P<.0005 36.9mg 6/50 2/35 12/65 8/50 pre:ade,anb. S zym MXA 89.2mg * P<.0005 c 51.3mg 1/50 5/35 10/65 20/50 zym:ade,car. ski sqc 89.7mg Z P<.0005 45.3mg 0/50 1/35 7/65 13/50 S ski sqp 92.8mg * P<.0005 42.9mg 2/50 3/35 5/65 8/50 S ski bcc Z P<.0005 50.5mg 0/50 2/35 4/65 10/50 S thy MXA Z P<.002 41.8mg 0/50 4/35 4/65 (0/50) thy:fca,fcc. S ski sea * P<.0005 c 50.7mg 0/50 1/35 7/65 3/50 sub MXA * P<.003 53.4mg 2/50 3/35 5/65 4/50 sub:fib,sar. S zym car * P<.0005 73.7mg 1/50 3/35 8/65 17/50 S sub fib * P<.007 57.0mg 2.72gm 2/50 2/35 5/65 3/50 S ski ker * P<.006 60.6mg 2.32gm 2/50 1/35 7/65 2/50 S MXA MXA * P<.0005 c 84.3mg 0/50 1/35 6/65 8/50 asc:adp; col:adc,adp; dsc:adp. zym ade * P<.002 88.4mg 1.09gm 0/50 2/35 2/65 4/50 S MXA adp * P<.0005 1.16gm 0/50 1/35 2/65 5/50 asc:adp; col:adp; dsc:adp. S col adc * P<.002 1.66gm 0/50 0/35 4/65 3/50 S liv hpc * P<.002 1.87gm 0/50 0/35 1/65 4/50 S thy MXA * P<.03 44.4mg n.s.s. 8/50 9/35 9/65 5/50 thy:cca,ccb,ccr,cdb. S thy MXA * P<.04 52.4mg n.s.s. 5/50 8/35 7/65 4/50 thy:cca,cdb. S pre MXA * P<.05 79.1mg n.s.s. 2/50 3/35 11/65 1/50 pre:car,cnb. S thy fcc * P<.04 85.4mg n.s.s. 0/50 0/35 3/65 0/50 S MXA sqc * P<.04 n.s.s. 1/50 1/35 6/65 2/50 phr:sqc; ton:sqc. S ton MXA * P<.02 n.s.s. 0/50 1/35 3/65 2/50 ton:sqc,sqp. S phr sqc * P<.05 n.s.s. 1/50 0/35 4/65 2/50 S MXA asl * P<.03 e n.s.s. 0/50 1/35 1/65 2/50 bmd:asl; crb:asl. jej MXA 1.63gm * P<.2 c n.s.s. 0/50 1/35 0/65 2/50 jej:adc,adp,muc. TBA MXB 12.0mg * P<.0005 8.00mg 20.0mg 38/50 34/35 63/65 48/50 liv MXB 55.2mg * P<.0005 31.4mg 0/50 6/35 9/65 11/50 liv:hpa,hpc,nnd.

Mutagenicity in Salmonella: positive
SMILES Code for C.I. direct blue 15: C12C(=CC(=C(C=1O)/N=N/C3=C(C=C(C=C3)C4=CC(=C(C=C4)/N=N/C5=C(C=C6C(=C5O)C(=CC(=C6)S(=O)(=O)[O-])N)S(=O)(=O)[O-])OC)OC)S(=O)(=O)[O-])C=C(C=C2N)S(=O)(=O)[O-].[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].[Na+]
InChI Code for C.I. direct blue 15: InChI=1/C34H28N6O16S4.4Na/c1-55-25-9-15(3-5-23(25)37-39-31-27(59(49,50)51)11-17-7-19(57(43,44)45)13-21(35)29(17)33(31)41)16-4-6-24(26(10-16)56-2)38-40-32-28(60(52,53)54)12-18-8-20(58(46,47)48)14-22(36)30(18)34(32)42;;;;/h3-14,41-42H,35-36H2,1-2H3,(H,43,44,45)(H,46,47,48)(H,49,50,51)(H,52,53,54);;;;/q;4*+1/p-4/b39-37-,40-38-;;;;
Source for SMILES and InChI: USEPA Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database
Chemical Structure for C.I. direct blue 15: Chemical Structure
Source for structure: National Library of Medicine ChemIDPlus

See full CPDB Summary Table on 1547 chemicals. See Full CPDB for all results on 6540 experiments of 1547 chemicals.

A complete list of CPDB chemicals, which is searchable by name or by CAS number, is available here.

For a compendium of CPDB results organized by target organ, which lists all chemicals in each species that induced tumors in each of 35 organs, see Summary Table by Target Organ.

The CPDB is available in several formats that permit printing and downloading into spreadsheets and statistical databases.

  1. A plot of the CPDB presents results of 1547 experiments on 6540 chemicals in an easily readable format that has been used in publications of the CPDB.
  2. A Screen version plot for use on a single computer screen, with the same data.
  3. Excel version of the same data.
  4. Tab-separated versions of the same data, which can be easily read into databases.

A Supplementary Dataset gives details on dosing and survival for each experiment.

Relatively precise estimates of the lower confidence limit on the TD10 (LTD10) are readily calculated from the TD50 and its lower confidence limit, which are reported in the CPDB. For researchers and regulatory agencies interested in LTD10 values, we provide them in an Excel spreadsheet.

PDF versions of our publications of analyses using the CPDB are available, organized by year and by research topic.

Carcinogenic Potency Database Project (CPDB) Home Page
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Last updated: October 3, 2007

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