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Carcinogenic Potency Project

Saccharin, sodium (CAS 128-44-9)
SMILES, InChI and Structure are below.
Rats and Mice: Cancer Test Summary
Rat Target Sites Mouse Target Sites TD50 (mg/kg/day)
Male Female Male Female Rat Mouse
ubl no positive no positive no positive 2140m,v no positive

Monkeys: Cancer Test Summary
Monkey Target Sites TD50
Rhesus Cynomulgus Rhesus Cynomulgus
no positive no positive no positive no positive

Key to the Table Above

Positivity: For each chemical with a positive (carcinogenic) experiment in the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), results are included on carcinogenic potency (TD50) in each species and target sites in males and females. Positivity is determined by an author’s opinion in a published paper. If all experimental results in the CDPB are negative in a sex-species group, “no positive” appears. If the CPDB has no experiments in the sex-species group, “no test” appears. The summary presents the strongest evidence of carcinogenicity in each group. If there are both positive and negative experiments in a sex-species, the negative results are ignored in this Summary Table.
Target Site Codes:   ubl = urinary bladder. Target sites are listed if any author of published experimental results concluded that tumors were induced in that organ by the test agent. If there is more than one positive experiment in a sex-species, target sites listed may be from more than one experiment, e.g. if liver and lung are both listed, then liver may have been a target in one experiment and lung in another.
TD50: Our standardized measure of carcinogenic potency, TD50, is the daily dose rate in mg/kg body weight/day to induce tumors in half of test animals that would have remained tumor-free at zero dose. Whenever there is more than one positive experiment in a species, the reported TD50 value is a Harmonic Mean calculated using the TD50 value from the most potent target site in each positive experiment.
Superscripts:   m = There is more than one positive experiment in the species, and TD50 values from each positive experiment are used in the calculation of the reported Harmonic mean of TD50. v = Variation is greater than ten-fold among statistically significant (two-tailed p<0.1) TD50 values from different positive experiments.

The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a unique and widely used international resource of the results of 6540 chronic, long-term animal cancer tests on 1547 chemicals. The CPDB provides easy access to the bioassay literature, with qualitative and quantitative analyses of both positive and negative experiments that have been published over the past 50 years in the general literature through 2001 and by the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program through 2004. The CPDB standardizes the diverse literature of cancer bioassays that vary widely in protocol, histopathological examination and nomenclature, and in the published author’s choices of what information to provide in their papers. Results are reported in the CPDB for tests in rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, and nonhuman primates.

For each experiment, information is included on species, strain, and sex of test animal; features of experimental protocol such as route of administration, duration of dosing, dose level(s) in mg/kg body weight/day, and duration of experiment; experimental results are provided on target organ, tumor type, and tumor incidence; carcinogenic potency (TD50) and its statistical significance; shape of the dose-response, author’s opinion as to carcinogenicity, and literature citation.

Only tests with dosing for at least ¼ the standard lifespan of the species and experiment length at least ½ the lifespan are included in the CPDB. Only routes of administration with whole body exposure are included. Doses are standardized, average dose rates in mg/kg/day. A description of methods used in the CPDB to standardize the diverse literature of animal cancer tests is presented for: 1) Criteria for inclusion of experiments 2) Standardization of average daily dose levels and 3) TD50 estimation for a standard lifespan. See Methods for other details.

TD50 provides a standardized quantitative measure that can be used for comparisons and analyses of many issues in carcinogenesis. The range of TD50 values across chemicals that are rodent carcinogens is more than 100 million-fold. More than half the chemicals tested are positive in at least one experiment.

A plot of all results on each experiment in the CPDB for this chemical is presented below. These results are the source information for the Cancer Test Summary table above.

Saccharin, sodium: All Experiments and Citations in CPDB
The definition of each code in the plot below will appear in a pop-up window when the field name in the header line is clicked, e.g., Strain, Site, Path. Each numbered line starts a new experiment and reports protocol information in black. Average daily dose-rates per kg body weight per day are in green. Remaining lines report experimental results in blue.
Abbreviations of fields in header line: # = the line number in the plot of all CPDB chemicals; Xpo = duration of dosing; Xpt = duration of experiment; Site = tissue; Path = tumor type; DR = dose-response; AuOp = author’s opinion about carcinogenicity; LoConf, UpConf = confidence limits (99%) on TD50; Inc = tumor incidence for each dose group.
See Guide to reading the plot for details on each field, using an example of one experiment.
See Help to improve readability, or to fit the plot onto the screen or a printed page.

Chemical (Synonym) CAS
# Species Sex Strain Route Xpo+Xpt PaperNum        0 Dose  1 Dose 2 Dose  3 Dose          Literature Reference or NCI/NTP:Site Path
Site Path Notes   TD50  DR Pval    AuOp LoConf UpConf   Cntrl   1 Inc  2 Inc   3 Inc                                                        Brkly Code

SACCHARIN, SODIUM 128-44-9 5567 M f chi eat 24m24 1450 0 1.30gm 6.50gm Homburger;ctxf,359-373;1978 liv tum e no dre P=1. - 6.49gm n.s.s. 0/17 0/28 0/36 lun tum e no dre P=1. - 18.9gm n.s.s. 4/17 6/28 5/36 tba mix e 26.1gm * P<.7 - 4.12gm n.s.s. 11/17 16/28 24/36 5568 M m chi eat 24m24 1450 0 1.20gm 6.00gm lun tum e 1.36gm \ P<.002 - 4.99gm 1/19 14/29 (9/34) liv hpt e no dre P=1. - 19.6gm n.s.s. 1/19 5/29 2/34 tba mix e \ P<.002 - 3.79gm 4/19 20/29 (21/34) 5569 P b cym eat 23y23 2003 : 0 17.9mg Adamson;ossc,129-156;1982/Thorgeirsson 1994/Dalgard 1997/ Thorgeirsson&Seiber pers.comm. tba mal w no dre P=1. 6.84mg n.s.s. 3/15 0/4 5570 P b rhe eat 23y23 2003 : 0 17.9mg thy lym w 43.3mg P<.07 7.06mg n.s.s. 0/13 1/3 tba mal Ww P<1. 11.4mg n.s.s. 6/74 1/7 5571 R m aaa eat 80w80 2016m 0 2.00gm Honma;fctx,29,373-376;1991 ubl car er no dre P=1. - 8.54gm n.s.s. 0/12 0/35 5572 R m aci eat 52w52 1537 0 2.00gm Fukushima;gann,74,8-20;1983 ubl pam r 1.11gm P<.0005 + 3.41gm 0/30 9/34 ubl tcc r 3.71gm P<.05 + 1.12gm n.s.s. 0/30 3/34 5573 R f cdr eat 26m26 1114 0 90.0mg 2.43gm Munro;txap,32,513-526;1975 liv clc e 78.2gm * P<.03 - 19.2gm n.s.s. 0/56 0/56 0/52 0/56 2/54 liv nod e 98.4gm * P<.2 - 20.1gm n.s.s. 1/56 0/56 0/52 0/56 2/54 5574 R f cdr eat 33m33 1398 0 2.50gm Arnold;txap,52,113-152;1980 liv blc eg P<.6 20.8gm n.s.s. 1/48 2/49 liv nnd eg P<.3 25.2gm n.s.s. 0/48 1/49 5575 R m cdr eat 26m26 1114 0 90.0mg 2.43gm Munro;txap,32,513-526;1975 liv hpc e no dre P=1. - 31.5gm n.s.s. 0/57 0/51 1/54 0/52 0/54 5576 R m cdr eat 33m33 1398 0 2.00gm Arnold;txap,52,113-152;1980 pty ade e 23.2gm P<.008 8.81gm 0/49 5/48 ubl tcc e 31.1gm P<.05 + 9.40gm n.s.s. 0/36 3/38 liv blc e 60.0gm P<.1 14.8gm n.s.s. 0/49 2/48 ubl tpp e 30.8gm P<.2 + 8.50gm n.s.s. 1/36 4/38 5577 R m cdr eat 24m24 1450 0 2.00gm Homburger;ctxf,359-373;1978 tba mix e no dre P=1. - 1.96gm n.s.s. 11/16 21/28 15/26 5578 R m f34 eat 24m24 1479m 0 1.96gm Cohen;canr,42,65-71;1982 ubl tum r no dre P=1. - 8.49gm n.s.s. 0/37 0/21 5579 R m f34 eat 24m24 1479n 0 2.00gm ubl tum r no dre P=1. - 8.66gm n.s.s. 0/37 0/21 5580 R m f34 eat 52w52 1537 0 2.00gm Fukushima;gann,74,8-20;1983 ubl tum r no dre P=1. - 2.58gm n.s.s. 0/25 0/25 5581 R m f34 eat 24m24 1722 0 2.00gm Hasegawa;canr,45,1469-1473;1985/pers.comm. ubl pam 54.1gm P<.3 + 8.81gm n.s.s. 0/40 1/40 5582 R m f34 eat 95w95 1783 0 2.00gm Imaida;canr,46,6160-6164;1986 liv nnd no dre P=1. 14.4gm n.s.s. 1/42 0/42 5583 R m f34 eat 61w68 1786 0 1.79gm Sakata;canr,46,3903-3906;1986 liv tum e no dre P=1. 4.58gm n.s.s. 0/36 0/29 5584 R m f34 eat 24m24 1986 0 2.00gm Hasegawa;txcy,62,333-347;1990 ubl tum r no dre P=1. - 16.5gm n.s.s. 0/40 0/40 5585 R m f34 eat 72w73 2110 0 1.97gm Cohen;canr,51,1766-1777;1991 ubl car e no dre P=1. - 5.39gm n.s.s. 2/40 1/40 for pam e no dre P=1. - 8.01gm n.s.s. 0/40 0/40 5586 R m f34 eat 72w72 2298 0 2.00gm Ogawa;carc,17,961-965;1996/pers.comm. ubl tum r no dre P=1. - 5.73gm n.s.s. 0/23 0/29 5587 R m fis eat 23m24 1430 0 1.92gm Fukushima;canr,41,3100-3103;1981 ubl mix no dre P=1. - 10.3gm n.s.s. 0/27 0/26 5588 R m fis eat 24m24 1574 0 2.00gm Murasaki;carc,4,97-99;1983 liv tum no dre P=1. 8.24gm n.s.s. 0/30 0/20 ubl tum no dre P=1. 8.24gm n.s.s. 0/30 0/20 5589 R m fis eat 77w98 1657 0 1.57gm Cohen;canr,39,1207-1217;1979 tes ict P<.003 4.71gm 22/42 18/20 liv tum no dre P=1. 5.75gm n.s.s. 0/42 0/20 ubl tum no dre P=1. 5.75gm n.s.s. 0/42 0/20 5590 R b sda eat 30m30 1416 0 90.0mg Schmahl;arzn,23,1466-1470;1973 ubl tum e no dre P=1. - 1.94gm n.s.s. 0/98 0/94 0/93 tba mal e 4.10gm * P<.4 - 1.11gm n.s.s. 13/98 11/94 17/93 5591 R m sda eat 52w52 1537 0 2.00gm Fukushima;gann,74,8-20;1983 ubl tum r no dre P=1. - 2.58gm n.s.s. 0/25 0/25 5592 R m sda eat 80w80 2016n 0 2.00gm Honma;fctx,29,373-376;1991 ubl car er no dre P=1. - 8.78gm n.s.s. 0/14 0/36 5593 R b wis wat 24m24 1465 0 2.00gm Hicks;carm,2,475-489;1978 ubl tum er no dre P=1. 47.4gm n.s.s. 0/98 0/115 5594 R b wis eat 24m24 1465m 0 4.00gm ubl tum er P<.08 37.8gm n.s.s. 0/98 3/138 5595 R m wis eat 52w52 1537 0 2.00gm Fukushima;gann,74,8-20;1983 ubl tum r no dre P=1. - 2.58gm n.s.s. 0/25 0/25

Mutagenicity in Salmonella: negative
SMILES Code for Saccharin, sodium: O=C1[N-]S(=O)(=O)C2=CC=CC=C12.[Na+]
InChI Code for Saccharin, sodium: InChI=1/C7H5NO3S.Na/c9-7-5-3-1-2-4-6(5)12(10,11)8-7;/h1-4H,(H,8,9);/q;+1/p-1
Source for SMILES and InChI: USEPA Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database
Chemical Structure for Saccharin, sodium: Chemical Structure
Source for structure: National Library of Medicine ChemIDPlus

See full CPDB Summary Table on 1547 chemicals. See Full CPDB for all results on 6540 experiments of 1547 chemicals.

A complete list of CPDB chemicals, which is searchable by name or by CAS number, is available here.

For a compendium of CPDB results organized by target organ, which lists all chemicals in each species that induced tumors in each of 35 organs, see Summary Table by Target Organ.

The CPDB is available in several formats that permit printing and downloading into spreadsheets and statistical databases.

  1. A plot of the CPDB presents results of 1547 experiments on 6540 chemicals in an easily readable format that has been used in publications of the CPDB.
  2. A Screen version plot for use on a single computer screen, with the same data.
  3. Excel version of the same data.
  4. Tab-separated versions of the same data, which can be easily read into databases.

A Supplementary Dataset gives details on dosing and survival for each experiment.

Relatively precise estimates of the lower confidence limit on the TD10 (LTD10) are readily calculated from the TD50 and its lower confidence limit, which are reported in the CPDB. For researchers and regulatory agencies interested in LTD10 values, we provide them in an Excel spreadsheet.

PDF versions of our publications of analyses using the CPDB are available, organized by year and by research topic.

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Last updated: October 3, 2007

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