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Carcinogenic Potency Project

Vinylidene chloride (CAS 75-35-4)
SMILES, InChI and Structure are below.
Rats and Mice: Cancer Test Summary
Rat Target Sites Mouse Target Sites TD50 (mg/kg/day)
Male Female Male Female Rat Mouse
no positive no positive kid lun lun mgl vsc no positive 34.6m

Key to the Table Above

Positivity: For each chemical with a positive (carcinogenic) experiment in the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB), results are included on carcinogenic potency (TD50) in each species and target sites in males and females. Positivity is determined by an author’s opinion in a published paper. If all experimental results in the CDPB are negative in a sex-species group, “no positive” appears. If the CPDB has no experiments in the sex-species group, “no test” appears. The summary presents the strongest evidence of carcinogenicity in each group. If there are both positive and negative experiments in a sex-species, the negative results are ignored in this Summary Table.
Target Site Codes:   kid = kidney. lun = lung. mgl = mammary gland. vsc = vascular system. Target sites are listed if any author of published experimental results concluded that tumors were induced in that organ by the test agent. If there is more than one positive experiment in a sex-species, target sites listed may be from more than one experiment, e.g. if liver and lung are both listed, then liver may have been a target in one experiment and lung in another.
TD50: Our standardized measure of carcinogenic potency, TD50, is the daily dose rate in mg/kg body weight/day to induce tumors in half of test animals that would have remained tumor-free at zero dose. Whenever there is more than one positive experiment in a species, the reported TD50 value is a Harmonic Mean calculated using the TD50 value from the most potent target site in each positive experiment.
Superscripts:   m = There is more than one positive experiment in the species, and TD50 values from each positive experiment are used in the calculation of the reported Harmonic mean of TD50.

The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) is a unique and widely used international resource of the results of 6540 chronic, long-term animal cancer tests on 1547 chemicals. The CPDB provides easy access to the bioassay literature, with qualitative and quantitative analyses of both positive and negative experiments that have been published over the past 50 years in the general literature through 2001 and by the National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program through 2004. The CPDB standardizes the diverse literature of cancer bioassays that vary widely in protocol, histopathological examination and nomenclature, and in the published author’s choices of what information to provide in their papers. Results are reported in the CPDB for tests in rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, and nonhuman primates.

For each experiment, information is included on species, strain, and sex of test animal; features of experimental protocol such as route of administration, duration of dosing, dose level(s) in mg/kg body weight/day, and duration of experiment; experimental results are provided on target organ, tumor type, and tumor incidence; carcinogenic potency (TD50) and its statistical significance; shape of the dose-response, author’s opinion as to carcinogenicity, and literature citation.

Only tests with dosing for at least ¼ the standard lifespan of the species and experiment length at least ½ the lifespan are included in the CPDB. Only routes of administration with whole body exposure are included. Doses are standardized, average dose rates in mg/kg/day. A description of methods used in the CPDB to standardize the diverse literature of animal cancer tests is presented for: 1) Criteria for inclusion of experiments 2) Standardization of average daily dose levels and 3) TD50 estimation for a standard lifespan. See Methods for other details.

TD50 provides a standardized quantitative measure that can be used for comparisons and analyses of many issues in carcinogenesis. The range of TD50 values across chemicals that are rodent carcinogens is more than 100 million-fold. More than half the chemicals tested are positive in at least one experiment.

A plot of all results on each experiment in the CPDB for this chemical is presented below. These results are the source information for the Cancer Test Summary table above.

Vinylidene chloride: All Experiments and Citations in CPDB
The definition of each code in the plot below will appear in a pop-up window when the field name in the header line is clicked, e.g., Strain, Site, Path. Each numbered line starts a new experiment and reports protocol information in black. Average daily dose-rates per kg body weight per day are in green. Remaining lines report experimental results in blue.
Abbreviations of fields in header line: # = the line number in the plot of all CPDB chemicals; Xpo = duration of dosing; Xpt = duration of experiment; Site = tissue; Path = tumor type; DR = dose-response; AuOp = author’s opinion about carcinogenicity; LoConf, UpConf = confidence limits (99%) on TD50; Inc = tumor incidence for each dose group.
See Guide to reading the plot for details on each field, using an example of one experiment.
See Help to improve readability, or to fit the plot onto the screen or a printed page.

Chemical (Synonym) CAS
# Species Sex Strain Route Xpo+Xpt PaperNum        0 Dose  1 Dose 2 Dose  3 Dose          Literature Reference or NCI/NTP:Site Path
Site Path Notes   TD50  DR Pval    AuOp LoConf UpConf   Cntrl   1 Inc  2 Inc   3 Inc                                                        Brkly Code

VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE (1,1-dichloroethylene) 75-35-4 6548 M f b6c gav 24m24 TR228 : 0 1.43mg 7.14mg --- MXA # 3.90mg \ P<.05 - 1.54mg n.s.s. 7/50 15/50 (7/50) ---:leu,lym. S --- lym 4.02mg \ P<.02 1.65mg n.s.s. 2/50 9/50 (6/50) S TBA MXB 2.09mg \ P<.06 .838mg n.s.s. 23/50 33/50 (21/50) liv MXB no dre P=1. 28.7mg n.s.s. 4/50 3/50 3/50 liv:hpa,hpc,nnd. lun MXB 66.7mg * P<.2 19.2mg n.s.s. 1/50 1/50 4/50 lun:a/a,a/c. 6549 M m b6c gav 24m24 TR228 : 0 1.43mg 7.14mg TBA MXB 34.8mg * P<.6 - 6.01mg n.s.s. 30/50 22/50 33/50 liv MXB * P<.8 11.1mg n.s.s. 15/50 9/50 15/50 liv:hpa,hpc,nnd. lun MXB 60.4mg * P<.4 12.8mg n.s.s. 5/50 5/50 8/50 lun:a/a,a/c. 6550 M f cd1 inh 52w52 357 0 68.6mg Lee;jtxe,4,15-30;1978 liv hes e P<.3 + 27.7mg n.s.s. 0/16 1/15 liv hpt e P<.3 27.7mg n.s.s. 0/16 1/15 lun tum e no dre P=1. 53.0mg n.s.s. 0/16 0/15 6551 M f cd1 inh 26w78 1113m 0 22.9mg Hong;jtxe,7,909-924;1981/1980 liv hct e no dre P=1. - 31.8mg n.s.s. 1/28 0/12 liv hes e no dre P=1. - 31.8mg n.s.s. 1/28 0/12 lun abt e no dre P=1. - 31.8mg n.s.s. 7/28 0/12 6552 M m cd1 inh 26w78 1113m 0 19.0mg liv hct e no dre P=1. - 17.5mg n.s.s. 4/28 1/12 lun abt e no dre P=1. - 17.5mg n.s.s. 4/28 1/12 6553 M f swi inh 12m29 BT402n 0 7.72mg Maltoni;aric,3,1-229;1985/1977 mgl mix ej 80.9mg P<.004 + 38.9mg 1/89 12/118 lun mix ej P<.09 + 46.6mg n.s.s. 3/89 11/119 liv hpt ej P<.4 n.s.s. 0/78 1/111 liv ang ej no dre P=1. n.s.s. 2/77 1/109 tba mix ej 30.9mg P<.003 16.5mg 14/89 41/119 tba mal ej 86.1mg P<.03 38.1mg n.s.s. 3/90 14/120 6554 M m swi inh 12m29 BT402n 0 6.43mg kid adc ej 22.0mg P<.0005 + 13.6mg 38.7mg 0/66 25/98 lun mix ej 59.9mg P<.02 + 28.3mg n.s.s. 3/87 16/120 liv ang ej P<.4 92.2mg n.s.s. 0/60 1/88 liv hpt ej no dre P=1. 94.4mg n.s.s. 2/62 2/92 tba mix ej 17.9mg P<.0005 11.1mg 39.7mg 9/87 45/120 tba mal ej 50.3mg P<.004 25.3mg 3/90 18/120 6555 R f f34 gav 24m24 TR228 : 0 .714mg 3.57mg TBA MXB no dre P=1. - 3.65mg n.s.s. 42/50 38/50 36/50 liv MXB no dre P=1. 31.4mg n.s.s. 4/50 0/50 0/50 liv:hpa,hpc,nnd. 6556 R m f34 gav 24m24 TR228 : 0 .714mg 3.57mg TBA MXB no dre P=1. - 2.81mg n.s.s. 29/50 25/50 43/50 liv MXB no dre P=1. 10.1mg n.s.s. 1/50 3/50 3/50 liv:hpa,hpc,nnd. 6557 R f cdr inh 52w52 357 0 16.3mg Lee;jtxe,4,15-30;1978 liv hes e no dre P=1. 12.6mg n.s.s. 0/15 0/15 6558 R f cdr inh 26w78 1113m 0 5.44mg Hong;jtxe,7,909-924;1981/1980 liv mix e no dre P=1. - 5.05mg n.s.s. 0/8 0/8 6559 R f cdr inh 43w95 1113n 0 7.42mg liv mix e no dre P=1. - 20.4mg n.s.s. 0/16 0/16 6560 R m cdr inh 26w78 1113m 0 3.81mg liv mix e no dre P=1. - 3.53mg n.s.s. 0/8 0/8 6561 R m cdr inh 43w95 1113n 0 5.19mg liv mix e no dre P=1. - 12.5mg n.s.s. 1/16 0/14 6562 R f sda inh 24m35 BT4002 0 23.3mg Maltoni;aric,3,1-229;1985 liv mix egv P<.3 n.s.s. 0/22 1/26 tba mix egv P<.3 33.9mg n.s.s. 35/60 37/54 6563 R f sda gav 12m34 BT403 0 1.14mg 2.27mg 4.55mg liv ang e no dre P=1. 1.05mg n.s.s. 1/7 0/4 0/7 0/2 liv hpt e no dre P=1. 6.94mg n.s.s. 1/7 0/4 1/6 0/2 tba mix e no dre P=1. 19.2mg n.s.s. 63/99 32/50 28/50 25/48 6564 R f sda gav 12m32 BT404 0 .123mg liv ang e .501mg P<.2 80.1ug n.s.s. 0/10 1/4 tba mix e no dre P=1. .305mg n.s.s. 38/74 23/47 6565 R m sda gav 12m34 BT403 0 1.14mg 2.27mg 4.55mg liv ang e no dre P=1. .702mg n.s.s. 0/17 0/2 0/6 0/3 liv hpt e no dre P=1. .702mg n.s.s. 0/17 0/2 0/6 0/3 tba mix e no dre P=1. 42.7mg n.s.s. 29/100 11/49 9/48 9/49 6566 R m sda gav 12m32 BT404 0 .123mg liv mix e no dre P=1. .303mg n.s.s. 0/6 0/7 tba mix e 5.32mg P<.8 .466mg n.s.s. 13/68 10/47 6567 R f sss wat 24m24 1655 0 2.86mg 5.71mg 11.4mg Quast;faat,3,55-62;1983 liv nnd e * P<.4 - 74.1mg n.s.s. 1/80 1/48 0/48 2/48 liv hpc e * P<.2 - n.s.s. 0/80 0/48 0/48 1/48 mgl fba e * P<1. - 8.69mg n.s.s. 53/75 40/47 36/47 35/48 pit ade e no dre P=1. - 19.3mg n.s.s. 25/76 22/44 18/46 14/42 6568 R f sss inh 18m24 1799 0 5.30mg 16.1mg Quast;faat,6,105-144;1986 mgl fba e 16.0mg * P<.04 - 6.68mg n.s.s. 64/84 68/86 74/84 mgl adc e 49.8mg \ P<.03 - 19.4mg n.s.s. 1/84 7/86 (4/84) liv cho e no dre P=1. - n.s.s. 0/84 1/86 0/84 6569 R m sss wat 24m24 1655 0 2.50mg 5.00mg 10.0mg Quast;faat,3,55-62;1983 liv hpc e 22.9gm * P<1. - 86.2mg n.s.s. 2/80 0/48 1/48 1/47 liv nnd e no dre P=1. - 14.1mg n.s.s. 1/80 0/48 0/48 0/47 6570 R m sss inh 18m24 1799 0 3.71mg 11.3mg Quast;faat,6,105-144;1986 liv sar e no dre P=1. - 49.0mg n.s.s. 1/86 0/85 0/86

Mutagenicity in Salmonella: positive
SMILES Code for Vinylidene chloride: C=C(Cl)Cl
InChI Code for Vinylidene chloride: InChI=1/C2H2Cl2/c1-2(3)4/h1H2
Source for SMILES and InChI: USEPA Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database
Chemical Structure for Vinylidene chloride: Chemical Structure
Source for structure: National Library of Medicine ChemIDPlus

See full CPDB Summary Table on 1547 chemicals. See Full CPDB for all results on 6540 experiments of 1547 chemicals.

A complete list of CPDB chemicals, which is searchable by name or by CAS number, is available here.

For a compendium of CPDB results organized by target organ, which lists all chemicals in each species that induced tumors in each of 35 organs, see Summary Table by Target Organ.

The CPDB is available in several formats that permit printing and downloading into spreadsheets and statistical databases.

  1. A plot of the CPDB presents results of 1547 experiments on 6540 chemicals in an easily readable format that has been used in publications of the CPDB.
  2. A Screen version plot for use on a single computer screen, with the same data.
  3. Excel version of the same data.
  4. Tab-separated versions of the same data, which can be easily read into databases.

A Supplementary Dataset gives details on dosing and survival for each experiment.

Relatively precise estimates of the lower confidence limit on the TD10 (LTD10) are readily calculated from the TD50 and its lower confidence limit, which are reported in the CPDB. For researchers and regulatory agencies interested in LTD10 values, we provide them in an Excel spreadsheet.

PDF versions of our publications of analyses using the CPDB are available, organized by year and by research topic.

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Last updated: October 3, 2007

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