Publications from the Carcinogenic Potency Project


Food Chemical Risk Analysis, David R. Tennant, ed., New York: Chapman and Hall, 1997, pp. 267-295

Prioritization of Possible Carcinogenic Hazards in Food

Lois Swirsky Gold, Thomas H. Slone, and Bruce N. Ames

Table 4. High ranking chemicals on the HERT index: Human Exposure/Rodent Toxicity (LD50)

Potency of chemicals: A number in parentheses indicates a LD50 value not used in HERT calculation because it is the less sensitive species. LD50 values shown are values taken from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) computer database. Daily human exposure: We have tried to use reasonable daily intakes to facilitate comparisons. The calculations assume a daily dose for a lifetime. Possible hazard: The amount of rodent carcinogen indicated under dose is divided by 70 kg to give a milligram per kilogram of human exposure, and this human dose is given as the percentage of the LD50 dose in the rodent (in milligrams per kilogram) to calculate the Human Exposure/Rodent Toxicity index (HERT).


Possible hazard: LD50 (mg/kg)a Exposure

HERT (%) Daily human exposure via food Human dose of chemical Rats Mice References
13.5 Cassava (as a dietary staple) Hydrogen cyanide, 35 mg 3.7 Luckner, 1990
4.3 Coffee, 13.3 g Caffeine, 381 mg (192) 127 Stofberg, 1987,Macaulay, et al., 1984
0.3 Potato, 54.9 g alpha-Chaconine, 4.10 mg (84P) 19P Bushway and Ponnampalam, 1981,Takagi, 1990,TAS, 1989
0.1 Coffee, 13.3 g Chlorogenic acid, 274 mg 4000P Stofberg, 1987,Baltes, 1977
0.08 Chocolate, US average Theobromine, 48.8 mg (1265) 837 IARC, 1991
0.06 Pepper, 446 mg Piperine, 21.0 mg 514 (1637) Stofberg, 1987
0.05 Coffee, 13.3 g Trigonelline, 176 mg 5000 Stofberg, 1987,Clinton, 1986
0.04 Potato chips, 5.2 g alpha-Chaconine, 491 µg (84P) 19P Stofberg, 1987,Ahmed and Müller 1978
0.01 Beer, 257 g Isoamyl alcohol, 13.6 mg 1300 Stofberg, 1987,Arkima, 1968
0.01 Coffee, 13.3 g 2-Furancarboxylic acid, 821 µg 100P Stofberg, 1987,Tressl, et al., 1978
0.01 Sweet potato, 7.67 g Ipomeamarone, 336 µg 50 Coxon, Curtis and Howard, 1975
0.009 Potato 54.9 g alpha-Solanine, 3.68 mg 590 Bushway and Ponnampalam, 1981,Takagi, 1990, TAS, 1989
0.005 Coffee, 13.3 g 3-Methyl-1,2-benzenediol, 203 µg 56V Stofberg, 1987,Heinrich and Baltes, 1987
0.005 Coffee, 13.3 g Oxalic acid, 25.2 mg 7500 Stofberg, 1987,Kasidas and Rose, 1980
0.004 Beer, 257 g Phenethyl alcohol, 5.46 mg 1790 Stofberg, 1987,Arkima, 1968
0.004 Beer, 257 g Isobutyl alcohol, 6.40 mg 2460 Stofberg, 1987,Arkima, 1968
0.003 Coffee, 13.3 g Pyrogallol, 555 µg 300 Stofberg, 1987,Tressl, et al., 1978
0.003 Lettuce, 14.9 g Methylamine, 567 µg 317 TAS, 1989,Neurath et al., 1977
0.003 Beer, 257 g Propyl alcohol, 3.29 mg 1870 (6800) Stofberg, 1987,Arkima, 1968
0.002 Banana, 15.7 g trans-2-Hexenal, 1.19 mg (780) 685 TAS, 1989,Hultin and Proctor, 1961
0.002 Tomato, 88.7 g p-Coumaric acid, 1.02 mg 657P TAS, 1989,Schmidtlein and Herrmann, 1975
0.002 Apple, 32 g Epicatechin, 1.28 mg 1000P Risch and Herrmann, 1988,USEPA, 1989b
0.002 Beer, 257 Ethyl acetate, 4.42 mg (5620) 4100 Stofberg, 1987,Rosculet and Rickard, 1968

aAll LD50s are oral route except: P=intraperitoneal and V=intravenous.

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Last updated: November 24, 1998


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